Mag identifies a series of vehicles designed between 2008 and 2010 with intended characteristics. These vehicles are always thought having no mechanical drive systems of any kind, they are simply transmissionless, driven directly through in-wheels-electric-motors; each one inside each wheel. Mag's may have different power systems depending of the model, these vehicles could be provided of electric-power-generators; batteries, fuel cells or most of the time integrate all those different devices in one single vehicle.

Indeed some of the Mags are equipped with a parallel hybrid system, having a endothermic engines with ceramic components or special metal leagues, (Magneto) or even high-tech plastics components as bearings made of Teflon or ceramic composite even though carbon fiber takes most of its surpace. In the Serial-hybrid models combustion engine is however simply connected to a power generator, no transmission or shaft of any kind is present aboard the vehicle.
Some other Mags are provided of fuel cells reactors for the production of electricity and this is related to the MagTre, some other are full electric powered. Whatever the version would be, all the projects will always be electrically driven and powered by several source of power, like high capacity batteries for the energy storage; in some cases solar panels are also integrated in the wind shield or palced on the roof. Any Mag is provided always of a permanent magnet generator (Pendelev motor) which is part of the energy multi-source system.
The four motors guarantee a perfect full traction in any driving condition or on any kind of road, whatever is your driving style. Electric Motors can also offer a high level of flexibility thanks to a digital management system.
Architecture of the vehicle: MagDue

MagDue is a full-electric four seats car, and it requires a different driving style, although retains many of the characteristics of a classic car. The aerodynamics and the use of smooth surfaces with very few variations on the body line makes the vehicle particularly efficient from the aerodynamic point of view, increasing the performances with an interesting reduction of noise, turbulence and less energy required to keep it running.
The main frame is made of aluminum with coatings and composite materials, that make it very lightweight compensating the weight of the batteries, which after all does not exceed too much that of a typical engine/transmission system of a conventional car. The center of gravity is quite low to compensate the weight shifting during acceleration, improving also the lateral stability in turn. Wheels have a rather wide diameter to improve the efficiency requiring a low rpm on the electric motors. This combination ensures stability and high performance in any driving condition


The main console placed in the center of the car is provided of a single tactile display, driver can set all the numerous functions of the vehicle as he/she whishes. One more display is placed in the middle of the steering wheel, this device displays all the information related to the conduction of the car.
There is no mechanism of any type to start the engine, the car can be operated remotely or through a pocket digital remote control, that will automatically activate the car.
There is a sort of digital coded wireless key to activate the vehicle. The car can be set-up in any possible way, from the seat position to the environment temperature, even the driving style can be programmed in advance by the driver. All that could be pre-stored in the Drive-Card or within the car system itself. The Drive-Card should be inserted in a special pocket up-dating all the data into and from the car’s main computer, but it can also be programmed through an ordinary computer by means of an appropriate software before a long trip. In-fact it can store many information or downloading them in the main system, like a driving plain or any other possible useful data or important new setting. A dedicated application can be installed on your smart phone as well allowing to perform the same functions of the Drive’s key having even more accurate control of the machine, furthermore you can control the vehicle status via remote device or through your smarth phone.

Driving this vehicle is more than a relaxing experience thanks to its own quietness, which makes it excellent from this point of view, however this car is equipped with a sound-generator capable to make a sort of background noise, it can be activated in populated area to mark its presence to pedestrians.
The noise generator can perform a variety of different sounds reproducing classic piston’s engine noise or other kind of background sounds activated in the right measure, near crowded areas or cities main road. This will be mandatory in the future at least in the center of cities or while driving through city's blocks.
The steering guide is interactive, it also contains an electromechanical devices that generate a feed-back to the driver who could being woke-up stimulating his/her attention while driving, since the extreme comfort of the vehicle could be at the same time a potential stimulation of distraction or loss of attention. It’s important to note that the advantage of a low noise vehicle could be - in some cases - a disturbing factor, because a such silent car could decrease the attention while driving.

Console and habitability

This is a transmission-less vehicle, it requires a radically different driving attitude since there is no transmission. In this vehicle there is a new approach and a different perspective of what a car should look alike in the future, there are only very few familiar aspect in common with conventional cars, since MagDue is a re-thought car’s scheme.
This leads to a revision of the whole architecture of the car since the internal spaces reserved for habitability as well the space to contain operating devices, like batteries or vital systems - since there is no engine or transmission of any type - will certainly have a different displacement.

MagDue remind a kind of sport car in its extreme form, but it's rather more like a classic four-seats high performance sedan vehicle. The diameter of the wheels in-fact provide a remarkable stability on the road at any given condition. The rear wheels are provvided of a steering device integrated, this means that the car is able to rotate also the rear wheels for a maximum range not larger than 4 degrees, according to any variation of speed or any appropriate situation.
In a parking maneuver the car perform the maximum rotation of all the four wheels to facilitate the maneuver within limited spaces. This possibility is most of the time pretty much limited in a conventional vehicle. In a quite different situation while driving at high speed all the four wheels will be orientated in the same direction when above 50 miles per hour, although in a limited angle respect to the front couple but sufficiently to accomplish a perfect rapid maneuver.
Digital motors

The motor controls occur through a digital management system of the electric power coming out from the designed source - in the Mag Due energy comes out from two different systems. The main battery pack wich contains two unit, the main one is flatten and is settled under the floor of the vehicle, while the secondary one is inserted between the two main frame bar, and they can guarantee a maximum range of 1250 km with a maximum charging time not more than four hours for both, but there is also another battery pack system which store energy from the motors when the vehicle take the advantage of its own inertia. Power is therefore distributed to each single wheel with the right amount of energy, necessary to move the vehicle on the road according with variation of speed and performance required by each of the single in-wheel-electric-motor, and of-course with driving conditions.
Each one of the motors is provided of an independent rpm controller. Since motors are brush-less three phases type with permanent magnets and connected with the car (on-board main computer) through just three cables, an optical and a data cable move across the main frame from the main control unit to all the four motor controller which sends digital information for the variation of the frequency which regulate the power on indipendently on each single motor. This allows precision and independence of any motor so that if one of them will be inefficient due to a failure, the other three remaining could compensate the malfunction with a perfect efficiency, supplying the loss of power, since the main computer control system send streaming digital information to each of the motor controller, in order to compensate for the failure of one or more of them.

Each power cable works in a two-way mode depending on the function that fulfills it along the path of travel. The motor in fact is more than one of the four muscles of the car, it works also as a kind of power generator for the recovery of passive mechanical energy into electrical form.
The optical cable instead delivers only information to the motors controller by sending instructions produced through a sequence of complex algorithmic, means of an appropriate software in a quick, efficient and extremely precise stream, through frequency’s pulses rather than injecting a variable electric flow.
In previous projects such as the Magneto, the management system of the motors was unique and was connected to each motor through one single power cable. This made the machine rather complex and heavy as well as susceptible to a possible failures, due to the constant cable’s torsion. MagDue is provvided of a special connector that allows the wheel to turn without twisting the cable which may be damaged after a while.

Motors and power managements system

While driving downhill, where the amount of energy required is minimal or at least useless since the driver could take the advantage of inertia due to the weight of the vehicle the car roll down by itself for a certain distance, so the main computer switches off the traction on the two rear engines every time the driver takes his/her foot off the "gas" pedal, from that point the system starts to work as generator device, charging the first group of low performance cells, those having a low autonomy saving a considerable portion of power from the two main cells.
So each time pilot releases the foot from the speed control, the four motors automatically become a generator systems, recovering energy according to the sequence described above. This requires among other things a small revision of the driving concept for this type of cars, that exploit pretty well because of its inherent inertia, which prove to be immediately useful to run succesfully and at low cost.

Another example of the efficient distribution of energy from the central system to the four motors, shows it efficiency once you get in extreme traffic conditions, in other words when the car moves very slowly and for short distances. The system then implement the inertial-batteries first (limited autonomy) until the charge of it is gone, then immediately after the long performance battery pack return on service. Since the energy required to move the vehicle in conditions like these is low because the car is moving slowly, this mode can guarantee a very high performance and a good energy saving. In-fact in a such driving condition the main computer unit will implement at each pulse of acceleration only the front or the rear motors; according to the road slope or the position in the space of the vehicle like the displacement of the center of gravity for example if the car is climbing on a rampa or is standing on a flat road, reducing the mutual use of the other pair instead dimmed. The car can employ one pair of motors or all four according to speed and performance required to save the energy spent.

Power, batteries and Magnetic generator

MagDue is powered through a series of systems for the production of energy; according to a hierarchical order based on the performances required. The main power system is made of a twin battery pack that release electric power, the batteries can perform the car to cover more than 1250 km with one single charge requiring less than four hours (according to the power of the charging station).
Batteries can be recharged via the external plug or through an induction charger placed on the floor of your garage aligned under the car, this system indeed doesn't require to plug your magneto to the charging source, you just park the car on a marked platform showing the correct alignment to the induction charger. The car is also provided of two Pendelev Generator, but can also be partially charged thanks to its own inertia as described above. The second battery (low performance units) system indeed is composed of a pack of inertial accumulators, that as well as the main unit are constantly under charge, either through the brake system of energy recovery; as it happens on most of conventional hybrid cars, or as above described through one pair or even all four the electric motors. This type of battery provides a limited boost in a giving time guarantee additional useful energy on the starting from zero speed or while driving slow for a short time not more than 30 km at their best charge.

A special version of MagDue is equipped with special solar panels inserted within the top wind sheld compressed in a laiers which represent a further source for the low batteries energy storage. The panels are semi-transparent having a high level of efficiency.
Finally as well as all Mags, MagDue is also equipped with a permanent magnetic generator, (Pendelev Motor) which start to run since the assembly process take place at the factory. The function of this component is permanent indeed this device is able to maintain a charge level rather constant, although of the average capacity, but it is also an integral part of the system of energy supply. Since this component is in a constant motion it’s sealed in such a way as to be as silent as possible, not more than a smooth flat buzz can be heard from outside the vehicle.
The power management system then activates the various energy sources in accordance with a hierarchical sequence, the computer then will choice the best and more convenient one, thanks to the driving conditions required, by computing the right amount of the energy the vehicle needs in any due instant. This is the basic principle on which the series Mag is based on.
The vehicle uses power systems with very low energy absorption, such as LED or in any case very high efficiency devices, since one of the main goal to reach – by my point of view – is the integration of very low power absorption as well efficient components well connected to a computer system capable to calculate and then distribute the right amount of power to the right component, out by the several power sources. This basic principle will allow to make a very high performances vehicle, since the amount of energy required will be even less to get the same performances or even better than a conventional combustion motor vehicle.


Some of my projects are addressed to the developed of “road vehicles”, although most of my ideas come basically from prototypes designed for the aviation environment as the CellCraft's series, that stimulates a lot of interesting ideas, as well pretty well applicable on road’s vehicle. However, the basic concept is always the same: the elimination or dramatic reduction of any mechanical transmission element, which absorb too much energy to work properly, therefore making most project more affordable and convenient. The adoption of electric motors for the main functions of locomotion electronically controlled, will make machines pretty much efficient.
Future cars will be radically different, a new style will be described in the next thirty years since the appearance of compact car made in the fifties, having homogeneous shapes, living enough room for engineers and designers, increasing their creativity with good style and aerodynamically efficiency.
MagDue is one of thousands of potential examples of what could lead to a radical change of direction in the future automotive industry.

Oct 2011 Gino d'Ignazio "gizio"